How I increased my savings by 850% in 4 years

Image result for increasing net worth

I have been in both contemplating and calculating modes lately. I realized I have come a long way financially, since my old days of  being in denial about my monetary situation  crisis.

It took 2 major events to really galvanize me into action: realizing I had hit 25K of consumer debt & student loans and becoming a home owner. These did not happen simultaneously.

When I bought my first condo in 2013, I became house rich but also cash poor. Pretty much all my savings went towards the down-payment and closing costs. On top of that, I had to spend an extra $ 1 400 to replace 2 appliances that died within 3 weeks of me moving in. And, I still had debt to pay off….yikes!

But, I did it.

No, it was not always easy, and yes, I also had a little help from the sale of my first condo. That being said, only a tiny portion of the proceeds went towards my savings. Most of them were used to buy my current condo and pay-off my consolidation loan.

Before I start explaining how I accomplished this, let me clarify and be honest on a couple of points:

  • 850% is a big percentage. However, in 2013, the balance of my various savings’vehicles was very low. I did not become a millionaire.
  • As indicated above, the majority of the proceeds from the sale of my condo is not included in that figure.

i drastically increased my income

This is the number one reason I was able to increase my savings while paying-off debt and being a home owner. If you were hoping for a get-rich-quickly scheme, sorry to disappoint you! Only a very few personal finance blogs insist on this, but earning more is actually the best way to achieve your goals and dreams.

I didn’t buy too much house

Living in the Lower Mainland, I had to adjust my expectations. Owning in the city Vancouver will never be a possibility, and I am fine with it. That being said, with the amount that my mortgage broker qualified me for, I could have bought a bigger place. I didn’t, as my housing costs would have been way too high. Right now, they are sitting at 34% of my net income.

i didn’t buy too much car

Quite frankly, I don’t understand people spending an astronomical amount of money on a depreciating asset. A car looses value the moment it leaves the dealership. I also don’t understand people trading-in cars every 2 or 3 years thus staying trapped in a perpetual monthly payment cycle. Did I mention anything about people taking on 7-8 year long car loans? Or rolling old car loans into a new one, therefore owning more than the vehicle is worth?

My subcompact car will be paid off in 13 months. I plan on keeping it for at least 5 to 7 years afterwards.

i was -and still am-very disciplined

I always pay myself first. I have automatic withdrawals from my chequing account to both my TFSA and RRSP aligned with each paycheck. I am paid on bi-weekly basis, meaning I receive 26 paychecks per year instead of 24. Over the last 4 years, I was also blessed with work bonuses and tax refunds. I have reinvested the huge majority of these easy financial boosters. Many times, I was tempted to blow these away. I am glad I didn’t.

but wait, what about your other expenses?

You might ask. It is a legitimate question. I definitely do my best to keep them at reasonable levels. That being said, with all the above points, I don’t sweat that much over them.

final word

It was not always easy to simultaneously save and pay-off debt and pay for regular expenses. But, I am proof it is doable. Now I am almost debt free, I feel like the best is yet to come, financially speaking.


Buying a foreclosed property

Image result for foreclosed property

Note: I am neither a Realtor® nor a Lawyer. This post is for information purposes only. It also focuses on the province of British-Columbia, where I live. 

A property is considered in foreclosure when a lender obtains  an order of sale from a Court and the owner is unable to redeem the property. In plain terms, this happens when an owner is behind on their mortgage payments.

Let’s take an overview of the process for buying a foreclosed property, as it differs from buying a traditional property.

the price on a foreclosure will be close to market value

Unlike in the United States for example, Canada’s Courts protect the owner, not the lender or the buyer. The sale price is as to be close to market value as possible. You won’t be able to buy a property at a deep discount. Lenders work with a Realtor® and the property is listed on the MLS®.

That being said, the listing price will usually be lower. There are a few reasons for this: the property is usually sold to the highest bidder in court, the property is sold “as is”, and if after all fees are deducted there is a profit, the lender has to write a check to the owner….most lenders don’t want to do this.

the only subject you can include is “subject to court approval”

That’s right, you are reading correctly. Unlike a regular purchase, you cannot include the usual subjects like financing, home inspection, review of documents etc…in your offer. This is a legal requirement. The offer presented in Court has to be free of subjects. When the lender/trustee approves your offer, you have five business days to get your affairs in order, i.e. obtaining financing, do a home inspection if you can etc…

This can be a bit tricky, which brings me to the very important next point.


Neither the lender or the Court makes any representations or warranties as to the condition of the property. Many documents may not be available to review. There will be no property disclosure statement. Chattels are not included in the sale, as the lender does not own them. A chattel is an item that is removable from the property, such as appliances. In an nutshell, you assume all the risks related to the condition of the property.

A lot of lenders will also not finance foreclosures.

once accepted, your offer becomes public

When the lender accepts your offer, a date in Court is set. Your offer is part of the public court filing for everyone to see.

be prepared for court

On the set date, you need to be present. You also need to have a deposit in hand. Unlike, a regular purchase, the deposit needs to be included with your offer.

The Judge -or Master-  will ask if the owner can redeem the property. If not, they will ask if they are any other parties interested. If yes, this is when the bidding war occurs. You only have one shot at this. All bids are presented in sealed envelopes. Usually, the property is sold to the highest bidder and/or the bidder with the highest deposit.

If the judge approves your offer, it becomes legally binding as the only subject is removed. You also need to pay close attention to details like spelling, names and legal description of the property, as there is no title transfer in a foreclosure. Instead the Order Approving Sale is filed at the Land Title Office. If there are mistakes, the Office could refuse it.

final words

Buying a foreclosed property is definitely not for the faint-of-heart. Should you decide to take this route, you will need to leave your emotions at the door. You will also need to be patient, as the process takes more time.

Don’t be lured by the perceived lower price. Since you are buying “as is”, you have no idea of the actual condition of the property. You could face big costs upon possession.




Segregated funds explained

Please note I am not a financial adviser or an insurance broker. This post is for information purpose only. 

Image result for segregated funds

Segregated funds have always been a highly debated product. After years of stagnation, they are making a come-back. In 2015, the total amount of money held in segregated funds in Canada rose by close to 17%.

But, what is a segregated fund?

A segregated fund or -seg- is a product combining both investment and insurance. To sum it up, it works like an “insured mutual fund”. The insurance portion guarantees 75% to 100% of the principal invested. Monies are invested in stocks or bonds.

Segs are considered an insurance product and are usually sold by insurance companies. That’s it for the basics.

what are the advantages?

The main perk of this product is that you are guaranteed to receive the majority of your money back. If the investment portion performs well, you could actually end-up with a lot more money.

The insurance portion also offers a death benefit that is not subject to probate. The money held is also protected from creditors. Should you file for bankruptcy, your seg is off-limit.

what are the DISADVANTAGES?

Segregated funds are very expensive. The management expense ratio -MER-on these products can be easily over 3%. As a reminder, the MER is deducted from the fund’s return.

Your money is also locked-in for 10 or 15 years, depending on the contract. If you decide to cash out before the term, you will be paying a hefty penalty and deferred sales charges. They are very few “no load” segregated funds. “No load” means you are not paying any fees for buying or selling.

Because segregated funds are insurance products, they do not have to comply with the new CRM2 rules on investments. Holders are largely kept in the dark as to the actual costs of their segs.

who are segregated funds for?

They could be of interest for:

  • Self-employed people or small business owners mainly to protect their assets from creditors
  • People who are really, really terrified of market risk and close to retirement
  • People who are in very poor health and at a very high risk of dying soon

final word

To be honest, there aren’t that many people who actually benefit from having segregated funds. Better and cheaper results can usually be achieved by purchasing a separate life insurance policy and investments.

Just like any financial product, you need to do your own research and cost-benefit analysis to see if a segregated fund makes sense for you.

Choosing a Financial Advisor

Image result for choosing a financial advisor canada

Over the last week or so, 3-time Olympian Harold Backer has made headlines here, in British-Columbia, and not for the right reasons. After retiring from rowing, Backer became a Financial Adviser and Mutual Fund representative. He mysteriously disappeared in 2015 amidst allegations of defrauding former clients. He turned himself in last week and has since been charged with two counts of fraud over $ 5 000.

this story illustrates how badly the financial services industry needs to change

The industry is largely unregulated. Anyone can set-up shop and call themselves a Financial Adviser, a Financial Consultant, a Money Coach, a Personal Finances Expert. You do not need any particular qualifications or experience.

Unfortunately, most canadians do not seem to care and are far too trusting

I don’t know which one I find scarier here, to be honest. A lot of personal finances bloggers also call themselves “experts” when they are anything but. This a post for another day.

So, how do you choose a Financial Advisor?

first, look for the following credentials

The Financial Services landscape is full of designations that can be very confusing. Unlike the Accounting profession, there is no talk of “unifying”.

  • Certified Financial Planner®: this is the “Gold standard” of the profession. This designation is international. To obtain it, candidates need to take classes in Financial Planning, pass exams and have a minimum of three years of relevant work experience. In Canada, the CFP® designation is administered by the Financial Planning Standards Council.
  • Personal Financial Planner®: this an alternate designation, administered by the Canadian Securities Institute. It is very similar to the CFP® designation.

A lot of Financial Planners also have one or more of the following specialized designations:

  • Chartered Investment Manager®: a CIM® usually handles and manages portfolios of wealthy clients.
  • Chartered Financial Analyst®: a CFA® also handles and manages portfolios. They also do research and analysis on companies, stocks and other securities.
  • Trust and Estate Professional®: a TEP® is very knowledgeable in estate planning and management, trusts, wills and taxation. Note a TEP® does not replace a lawyer or notary.
  • Chartered Professional Accountant ®: a CPA® prepares and analyses financial records for companies and non-profit organizations. They also do tax returns.
  • Chartered Financial Consultant®: a CH.FC® specializes in retirement planning and wealth accumulation.

The five above designations are very good complements to a CFP® or PFP® designation. However, as stand-alone, they are not enough to provide comprehensive financial planning.

Ignore the LLQP and Mutual fund license

The LLQP is for people who want to sell insurance products. These two credentials do not cut it to provide sound and objective financial advice.


In my opinion, this is the best way to receive unbiased advice. A fee-only planner will charge you for their time. Some will charge you a percentage based on the total value of your assets.

It will definitely be more expensive than meeting with an adviser at a bank. The main difference is that a fee-only planner will not sell you any products and will put your interests first.

Experience is a bit more relative. Education is key when it comes to choosing a Financial Planner.


Term insurance vs. permanent insurance

Image result for permanent insurance vs term insurance

Please note I am not a licensed insurance agent. This post is to give general information only.

Life insurance is probably one of the most confusing and complex financial product out there. In the PF blogosphere, it seems like pretty much everyone is touting term insurance as the only way to go while permanent insurance is shamed at every turn.

unfortunately, life insurance is not so black or white, all or nothing

There are a few considerations you need to look at before deciding what type of insurance is best for you, namely for how long you will need life insurance, your health, your family status, your financial situation and estate.

to simplify things, here is a basic comparison table


Term insurance Term 100 (permanent) Whole life (permanent) Universal life (permanent)
Coverage length specified period lifetime lifetime lifetime
Payout only if the insured dies during the term guaranteed guaranteed guaranteed
Premiums usually increase at renewal remain the same remain the same remain the same
Medical questionnaire/exam depends on the insurer, age and amount required depends on the insurer, age and amount required depends on the insurer, age and amount required depends on the insurer, age and amount required
Cash surrender value (if policy is cancelled) no usually no yes yes
Investment component no usually no yes, controlled by the insurer yes, more flexibility and choice for the insured
dividend and interest payment no usually no yes yes
Borrowing component no usually no yes, against cash value; decrease benefit amount if not repaid yes, against cash value; decrease benefit amount if not repaid
Use as collateral no usually no yes yes
Riders or adds-on usually no yes, additional benefits can be included yes, additional benefits can be included yes, additional benefits can be included
Overall cost cheaper more expensive very expensive very expensive
Other notes very difficult to obtain after 70-75 can be obtained up to 85; premiums cease at 100; coverage remains can be obtained up to 85 can be obtained up to 85
The major advantage of term insurance is the cost

This is mostly because the odds are in the favor of the insurer. It is very unlikely the insured will die during the term, particularly if they are young.

the main problem with term insurance is that you have nothing to show for it

You pay premiums for a determined period, but once the period has expired, you are basically back to square one. In determining the type of insurance you want, you have to be honest about how you feel about the above point.

the main principle behind term insurance may not be valid anymore

The basis for term life insurance is that as you age, your savings and assets grow, and that by the time you retire, you will have sufficient funds to cover final expenses such as funeral costs, estate taxes or probate fees.

Unfortunately, a lot of people do not accumulate enough wealth during their working years. We also tend to still be in debt upon retiring.

Last but not least, most of us will live well beyond 70-75 years.

the main benefits of permanent insurance are that payout is guaranteed and coverage is for life

Depending on your personal situation, it can make sense to have permanent insurance. For example, if you die at a ripe age with considerable wealth and your heirs are not your spouse or children, the taxes on your estate will be huge. If you want to leave a legacy, you are going to need money.

that being said, permanent life insurance distorts the definition of insurance

Insurance is a tool to replace lost income/property or to cover for a shortfall. It is not meant to build wealth. The returns on the investment component is usually not that great.

the biggest drawback is definitely the cost

Premiums are 4 to 5 times higher than with term insurance. You definitely need to crunch some numbers to see the total cost of your policy over the course of your life. Depending on where you are at, you might be able to save and invest that amount yourself.

final word

I have been reviewing my affairs recently. Although I am single, it doesn’t mean I don’t need coverage or that I don’t need a will.

Based on my personal situation, I am leaning towards a term 100 insurance. This type of insurance would provide me lifetime coverage without all the fuss associated with the investment and borrowing components. It is also slightly cheaper.

Financial milestone: consolidation loan fully paid-off!

Image result for paying off debt

Yesterday, I made a lump-sum payment of a little over $ 8 000, effectively putting my consolidation loan to its final resting place.

Beyond the excitement of being finally rid of this loan, I felt a huge relief and also like a weight had been lifted off my shoulders.

until i saw the balance at zero, I hadn’t realized how much this loan was weighing me down

I initially took out this loan in 2011 to consolidate my student loans, a pretty much maxed-out line of credit and a couple of credit cards. At the time, the total amount was about $ 25 000, with almost half of it in student loans.

If you are wondering how I got to be $ 25 000 in debt, please read my story.

Fast forward to 2014, the loan was down to $ 13 000.00. Clearly, consolidating worked for me.

Unfortunately, I had bought a condo in a building that was not in great shape and I found myself faced with a special assessment of $ 6 000.00 for repairs.

Alas, I did not have that money saved. I had bought the property the year before, and my savings were at around $ 2 000.00. So, I went back to the bank and consolidated again.

I was back to being $ 19 000.00 in debt

It was crushing, and not just financially. I started suffering from debt fatigue. I felt like I would never get out of debt. This loan and the payment amount associated with it started becoming a permanent part of my identity.

then, i decided to fight back

After all, I had dug the financial hole I was in, and it was my responsibility to climb out of it.

I decided to throw in an extra $100 per month towards the “beast”, on top of the bi-weekly payments I had to make.

I had calculated I would pay off this loan 9 months ahead of schedule by doing this.

i lucked out with the sale of my condo

Yes, the very same condo that got me further into debt got me out of it. Ironic, I know. I sold the property last year, at over-asking price. Initially, I hadn’t planned on selling just yet. You can find the details here and here.

So why had this loan not been paid off earlier, you are probably wondering. Because I also had other competing priorities, like a lot of people.

I repaid the amount I had taken out of my savings for the deposit on the purchase of my second condo. Then, I bumped up my emergency fund, which was, for me, a necessity.

The lack of emergency fund is what got me into debt in the first place. I don’t want to be in that situation again.

My parents also came to visit me, and yes, I used some of the proceeds to enjoy my time with them. I don’t regret doing that for one bit!

Last but not least, I initially wanted to pay-off my car loan instead, as the amount was slightly lower and I would have owned my car outright.

I debated quite a bit and it took time to reach this decision. I am glad I did. The consolidation loan amount was for a longer period and a higher interest rate. I also had it for too long.

i saved $ 2 000.00 in interests

My bank periodically sent me information about my loan agreement. If I had let this loan run its full course, I would have paid an extra $ 2 000.00.

i now have more options, and it is freeing

It is really liberating not to have that bi-weekly payment above my head anymore. I am now on to tackling my car payment and increasing my retirement savings.

2018 will be the year of becoming debt-free!

Is paying an annual credit card fee worth it?

Image result for is paying an annual fee for a credit card worth it

I have been contemplating upgrading my American Express Air Miles card to the Air Miles Platinum one. With Air Miles announcing miles are no longer expiring, it could be worth upgrading for me. Air Miles has had a lot of controversies over the last few months and the company has been slammed many times by the general public as well as the media.

air miles has always worked for me

Or rather, I should write I have always made it work for me. Over the last few years, I was able to get 2 planes tickets, receive free gas and free groceries as well as going to the movies with a friend on numerous occasions.

The Air Miles Platinum card comes with an annual fee of $65.00. In comparison to other credit cards, it is actually fairly modest. Some cards come with annual fees in excess of $ 500.00!

most of the times, if you want better rewards, you will have to pay for them!

The whole purpose of this post is to figure out if paying a sometimes hefty annual fee is worth it.

the value of the rewards offered needs to far exceed the annual fee

It is -almost- as simple than that! You need to calculate the dollar value of the card benefits and rewards and compare it to the annual fee.

In my case, switching to the Platinum card would yield an extra 5 000 miles per year, on top of what I am currently earning. 5 000 miles could get me to New York during the low season, or I could go to San Francisco, then Las Vegas -still off season-. During peak season, I could go all the way to Montreal. That’s economy class for all.

If, for example I had to pay for a return ticket to SFO in October -low season for Air Miles-, it would cost between $ 300 to $ 325, as per google flights. The value of the reward largely offsets the annual fee.

There are also a few other considerations to look at before deciding to apply for a credit card carrying an annual fee:

you need to pay the balance in full each month

Credit cards can charge up to 30% of interest, with the average being around 20%. If you carry a balance and have to pay interests, you will loose the financial value associated with the rewards.

you need to charge everything to your chosen card

In order to reach and reap the rewards, you need to “centralize” your purchases. The big reason I have been able to enjoy various Air Miles perks is that I have been charging pretty much everything to my Amex over the last 6 years.

you need to redeem your points/miles

It sounds almost dumb to write this, but if you merely collect points or miles and never use them, paying an annual fee is a waste of money!

final words

Don’t discard a credit card with an annual fee right away. Do your research and compare; analyse your spending. You may find out paying an annual fee can work to your advantage.

Consumer proposal explained

Image result for consumer proposal explained

Please note I am not a Trustee in bankruptcy. This post is for information purpose only. 

There is an option to bankruptcy many people have never heard of: consumer proposal.

let’s start by defining a consumer proposal

A consumer proposal is a legal, binding agreement in which you agree to pay a portion of your unsecured debts; your creditors agree to forgive the balance.

This is very different from a bankruptcy, and there are definite advantages to choose a consumer proposal over the latter:

your assets are protected

Unlike a bankruptcy, your house, car and/or savings are not on the line. You can keep them.

you don’t have to make surplus payments

In a consumer proposal, your payment amount is fixed and for five years maximum. You don’t have to make any additional payment and you won’t forfeit your tax refund, if you receive one.

you are protected from your creditors

Your wages can no longer be garnished. Collection agencies can no longer harass you.

Here is how the process works:

a licensed trustee in insolvency works out a payment plan and presents it to your creditors

A consumer proposal is managed by a professional trustee. Payments will go through the trustee.

your creditors have 45 days to accept your proposal

No news means your proposal is accepted. Your creditors can also request a meeting to discuss further. Once the proposal is accepted, you have to adhere to all its conditions and attend two financial counselling sessions.

Most creditors accept consumer proposals. They know it is better for them than you declaring bankruptcy or not paying them.

a consumer proposal does impact your credit score & file

Although, it is “easier” than a bankruptcy, a consumer proposal has the same negative impact on your credit file. You also won’t be able to apply for credit until your proposal is completed. Your existing credit will be cancelled.

if you don’t meet the proposal’s requirements, you will be back to square one

That’s right, your proposal will be annulled and your creditors will come back after you for full payment of what you owe.

you need income to pay for the proposal

This is a mandatory requirement. Consumer proposals are also usually more expensive than a bankruptcy. You also need to pay the Trustee. These people do not work for free.


Your mortgage cannot be included in a consumer proposal, as well as any student loan less than 7 years old.

final word

A consumer proposal can definitely be a better option than bankruptcy. But before you decide to go with one, you should always try to pay your debts by yourself or obtain a consolidation loan.


New fee disclosure rules for Canadian investments (CRM2)

Image result for crm2 fee disclosure

Last July, long-awaited changes to the way fees on investments are disclosed came into effect. Under the auspices of securities regulators and the Mutual Funds Dealers Association, CRM2 finally rolled out. CRM2 stands for Customer Relationship Model 2.

This new model is primarily aimed at mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

the goal of crm2 is to provide better clarity on the cost and performance of investments, but does it really?

Here is what is changing:

some fees will now be disclosed in dollar amounts instead of percentages

Under the new rules, investors will know the dollar value of trailing fees, annual fee-based charges, commissions and administrative fees. Trailing fees are commissions a broker receives for as long as an investor holds a mutual fund or ETF.

This is interesting for D.I.Y. investors. Many banks now offer “low-cost” mutual funds, on the basis that self-directed investors do not ask or receive advice. Yet, they are still paying for it!

performance will be calculated using the money-weighted method

The money-weighted method is more encompassing as it includes all contributions and withdrawals as well as dividends and capital gains. The time-weighted method only looks at the length of time the money is invested. It is the financial industry’s preferred method, as it is a good indicator of a fund’s performance. This method does not give an investor any indication as to how their own portfolio is doing.

Statements will also need to show returns for previous years.

unfortunately, this is only half of the story. crucial info will still not be disclosed

Mutual fees and ETFs -the latter to a lesser extent- both cost money to manage. This is known as Management Expense Ratio, M.E.R. The ratio encompasses various expenses such as professional fees, administrative fees, advertising , accounting and legal fees…etc. These expenses are paid regardless of the fund’s performance.

The new rules do not require fund companies to give a detailed breakdown on the M.E.R. This is where CRM2 is lacking, as it is the most important piece of information! The M.E.R. has the biggest impact on a fund’s return.

investors won’t know how much their ADVISER is paid

The fee disclosed is the one paid to the firm not to the adviser. It is a lump-sum.

CRM2 does not address the elephant in the room

Although it is a step in the right direction in terms of transparency, Canadian investors are still largely kept in the dark when it comes to the true cost of having mutual funds and ETFs.

Most importantly, Canadians pay the highest fees on their investments. CRM2 fails to address this.


Travel insurance explained


Image result for travel insurance picturesPlease note I am not an insurance agent or broker. This post is to provide basic information only. 

Many Canadians believe their healthcare system is universal, but it is actually not exactly true. It would be more accurate to say it is compulsory, i.e. everyone has to register by law for coverage. In Canada, healthcare administration is a provincial responsibility, not a federal one, meaning there is no unique and unified system.Each province has its own program.

Your health coverage does not work abroad or in another province

While most Canadians are aware their healthcare system does not work abroad, very few are aware that it also does not work in another province….technically. Should you require medical assistance while in another province, you will only be covered at the rates in your province of origin. If the costs of another province are higher, you will have to pay for the difference out of your own pocket.

That’s why it is always a good idea to buy travel insurance if you are going away, even for a few days.

Here are a few tips to ensure you get the right coverage and that it actually works when you need it:

your travel agent is not an insurance specialist, buy from an independant broker instead.

Travel agents are usually not licensed to sell insurance. They will push for you to buy from them as they most likely receive a commission. They are not knowledgable enough to answer your questions, and you could end-up with insufficient or inadequate coverage.

beware of pre-exisiting conditions and disclose them

A few years ago, a story about a pregnant woman who gave birth in Hawaii made headlines in Canada. The couple had purchased travel insurance but the insurer denied their claim, based on a pre-exisiting condition and the fact she hadn’t been cleared for travel by the company’s doctor. The couple found themselves facing a 950K bill. Each insurer has its own definition of a “pre-exisiting condition”. It could be anything from heart surgery to pregnancy or a broken leg 10 years ago. You will most likely have to pay more for them to be covered.

beware of your leisure activities

If you are into scuba diving or bungee jumping and something happens to you while practising these activities , chances are that you won’t be covered.

your doctor’s opinion is not the insurer’s doctor’s opinion

Because your doctor cleared you for travel, doesn’t mean the insurer’s doctor has also cleared you for travel.

make sure you fill the application correctly

For example, don’t forget to include all the names of the people who need coverage.

ask a lot of questions

Ultimately, it is your responsibility to understand your policy and what it covers and what it doesn’t. When in doubt, it is best to ask.

Remember, insurance companies are not charities. If the insurer has an opportunity to deny your claim, it will do so!